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The above pictures should give you a sense of how damaged the South had been.
The Civil War Comes to An End, Lincoln is assassinated (April 15) and the South is in ruins...
The Freedman's Bureau, to help former slaves, is established.
The Ku Klux Klan is organized in Pulaski, Tenn.
The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution is ratified stating that
"neither slavery nor involuntary servitude....shall exist" in the United States.
Wait! What Happened?:
After the fall of Richmond and the surrender at Appomattox,
John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Southern sympathizer, decided to assassinate the president while two co-conspirators would kill Secretary of State Seward and Vice President Andrew Johnson.
Booth hoped that this would throw the country into political
On Good Friday, April 14, 1865, Lincoln met with his cabinet. Lincoln wanted to restore the South with as little enmity and punishment as possible. Finally, the pressures and strain of leading the nation through a bloody civil war were ending, and the President could begin to relax. That evening, Lincoln took his wife and a young couple to see a play at Ford's Theater. The Washington policeman guarding the presidential box, John Parker, left his post to either have a better view of the play or get a drink at a nearby tavern.
John Wilkes Booth entered the presidential box and fired a single pistol shot into the president's head. The unconscious president was carried to the Petersen boarding house across the street from the theater. Throughout the night, as a light rain fell, scores of physicians and government officials crowded into the small room where the president lay dying. Finally, a little after seven o'clock in the morning, Lincoln died.
Notes courtesy of PBS Education.
The Assassination of President Lincoln shocked and grieved both North and South and thwarted plans for an orderly, charitable reconstruction.
Photograph of John Wilkes Booth
and the Conspirators
Composite Photographs of Conspirators
Seven of the 10 conspirators in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln are pictured in this composite. Neither Mary Surratt nor Dr. Samuel Mudd is pictured. An additional conspirator, Surratt’s son, John, is also not pictured. His trial in 1867 ended with a hung jury.
Courtesy of Kahn Academy, Check out the excellent video to the right. It will help to create a sort of timeline in your mind of the events that lead to Lincoln's Assassination. Enjoy and Thanks for watching!!!!
Here is the download:
Reconstruction... What was it?
In the twelve years after the Civil War—the era of Reconstruction—there were massive changes in American culture, economy, and politics. These were the years of the “Old West,” of cowboys, Indians, and buffalo hunts, of cattle drives, railroads, and ranches. It was also the beginning of the “Gilded Age” in the North, the age of big fortunes, enormous businesses, struggle over labor unions, and the burgeoning of cities filled with immigrants, all of it given an air of desperation by the largest economic depression in United States history beginning in 1873. The events in the West and the North interwove with those in the South, where the central struggles of Reconstruction unfolded.
Presidential Reconstruction, the era beginning in 1865 through early spring 1867, was a period during which Andrew Johnson shaped the pace and depth of the reintegration of the South into the United States following the Confederacy’s surrender.
The United States government, including President Lincoln, had defined no explicit and coherent plan for the postwar South and Lincoln’s assassination and Andrew Johnson’s rise to the presidency threw things into even greater uncertainty.
Andrew Johnson, who had defended the Union as a United States senator and wartime governor of Tennessee and who was elected vice president under Lincoln in 1864, proved surprisingly lenient with white Southerners and unsympathetic to the people who had been held in slavery.
Johnson hoped to create a national party devoted to the Union and sought the support of the former leaders
of the South.
He sacrificed black Southerners’ interests
in the process.
.....The President who follows Lincoln.
Johnson was a very
different sort of man--with a different personal history and a different set of values--than Lincoln.
“The Cruel Uncle and
the Vetoed Babes in the Wood,”
To the left:
A cartoon from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper,
12, May 1866. Andrew Johnson is the cruel uncle; the unfortunate children are “civil rights” and “bureau,” that is,
the Freedmen's Bureau. Congress passed the civil rights bill over Johnson's veto--it became the Civil Rights Act of 1866. Congress also overrode a veto by Johnson in 1866 regarding the bureau, which remained in operation until June 1872.
The Civil Rights Act of 1866 granted
citizenship and the same rights enjoyed by white citizens to all male persons in the United States "without distinction of race or color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude."
President Andrew Johnson's veto of the bill was overturned by a two-thirds majority in both houses of Congress, and the bill became law. Johnson's attitude contributed to the growth of the Radical Republican movement, which favored increased intervention in the South and more aid to former slaves, and ultimately to
Under Johnson, white Southerners held on to all they could of the old order. They passed “Black Codes” that narrowly defined the possibilities of life for freed people, preventing them from renting land or owning firearms and placing their children in coercive “apprenticeships” to their former owners. Former Confederates violently attacked black people in New Orleans, in Memphis, and in the countryside across the region.
The Ku Klux Klan terrorized those who challenged white supremacy in any way.
White Southerners resisted the Freedmen’s Bureau, which aided impoverished whites and blacks with surplus United States Army material, used special courts to adjudicate conflicts between freed people and their former masters, and tried to prevent violence against African Americans.
Did The Bureau Achieve
Marshall Twitchell & the Freedmen's Bureau:
CHECK OUT THE VIDEO to the right:
Would Play a Role in Reconstruction.
NEITHER SLAVERY NOR INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE, except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, SHALL EXIST IN THE UNITED STATES or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
The Fourteenth Amendment
The RIGHT of citizens of the United States TO VOTE SHALL NOT BE DENIED or abridged by the United States or any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
DOWNLOAD: Questions for Discussion of ALL Amendments
Reconstruction Amendments Foldable: A Project
|Analysis of Reconstruction Amendments_A Foldable Project.pdf|
|File Size:||91 kb|
Reconstruction: A Writing Prompt
|An Analysis of Reconstruction Amendments_ A Writing Prompt.pdf|
|File Size:||38 kb|
Emancipation Proclamation and
the 15th Amendment
A MUSEUM MOMENT:
A Painting by: Thomas Nast.
Take A Close (REALLY CLOSE!!) look at Nast's painting. What is going on? What is Nast "saying" with his paint brush? (look closer!)
You are going to DOWNLOAD
The first document will help you answer the questions we just asked AND SHOULD END UP IN YOUR BINDERS:
The SECOND document that you will be downloading asks you to PROVE that you have looked closely! This document will be turned in to me when it is completed. FILL IN THE BUBBLES and, in so doing, explain the painting itself. Thanks.
Remember the power of images! A picture is always worth a thousand words.
Here is your SECOND document:
A cartoon about President Johnson's
Many of the Radical Republicans held Johnson responsible for the South's continued resistance. This 1866 cartoon depicts him as a supporter of the South (portrayed as a demon) and attacks his lenient offer of pardons to the former rebels. Johnson, a southerner by birth, is shown standing on a wounded African-American soldier who asks, "Is this our Moses?"
Opponents of Johnson accused him of having more sympathy for traitors to the Union than for the unfortunates who had suffered so long under slavery.
The End of Reconstruction
Video: The Supreme Court During The Period
A Person of Interest
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses Grant entered the White House in the middle of the Reconstruction era, a tumultuous period in which the 11 Southern states that seceded before or at the start of the Civil War were brought back into the Union. As president, Grant tried to foster a peaceful reconciliation between the North and South. He supported pardons for former Confederate leaders while also attempting to protect the civil rights of freed slaves. In 1870, the 15th Amendment, which gave black men the right to vote, was ratified. Grant signed legislation aimed at limiting the activities of white terrorist groups like the Ku Klux Klan that used violence to intimidate blacks and prevent them from voting.
At various times, the president stationed federal troops throughout the South to maintain law and order. Critics charged that Grant's actions violated states' rights, while others contended that the president did not do enough to protect freedmen.
A THEME? Do you see that people are still having the same argument as the one waged between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson:
Who Should Hold The Power:
States or A Strong, Federal Government?
Scandals during Grant's Presidency
Black Friday, 1869
Ulysses S. Grant's administration had more than its fair share of scandal. The first dealt with gold and speculation in the market. Jay Gould and James Fisk tried to corner the market by driving up the price of gold. President Grant found out about the scheme and had the Treasury quickly add gold to the economy. This in turn resulted in the lowering of gold prices on Friday, September 24, 1869 which had the end end effect of hurting everyone who had bought gold.
Whiskey Ring, 1875
Another scandal that occurred during Grant's presidency was the Whiskey Ring. In 1875, it was revealed that many government employees were pocketing whiskey taxes. Grant called for swift punishment but caused further scandal when he moved to protect his personal secretary who had been implicated in the affair.
The Chicago Fire
The Nation's rapid economic growth during and following the Civil War, made Chicago THE city of northern trade. Strategically located by the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River, the city also became a central rail link between eastern commercial centers and the rapidly expanding West. New York interests especially invested fortunes in Chicago and her railroads, making the city one of warehouses and merchants gathering in raw materials like lumber and grain and providing western farmers and settlers with finished goods.
The city grew so quickly that no one ever had a chance, truthfully, to create a sort of plan for that growth. Instead, the city grew through additions, hastily constructed buildings and housing. It also grew in terms of the production of lumber. And so, Chicago grew toward the heavens with structures made of that lumber. In 1871 a severe drought plagued the state of Illinois. By late September of that year Chicago had seen little or no rain for almost three months. Several major fires tested the city's fire department, and destroyed several critical pieces of fire fighting equipment.
Chicagoans remembered October 9, 1871 as an unseasonably warm Sunday, and when another fire broke out on the west side that evening, a relentless southwest wind drove it toward the center of city. The fire soon jumped the Chicago River and destroyed much of the north side. The extremely high temperatures generated by the burning of thousands of wooden buildings demolished brick and stone structures as well, usually by incinerating wooden beams mounted behind facades.
Video #10: The Chicago Fire
The earth shook from the collapse of large buildings,
and Chicagoans fled their homes with
only such things as they could carry.
Economic Turmoil & The Panic of 1873
According to Dr. Drew VandeCreek, "The Panic of 1873 began on September 18 with the failure of the Philadelphia investment house of Jay Cooke. Cooke had played a large role in financing the Union war effort by marketing federal bonds to farmers and workers. After the war, his firm had become the government's agent in financing railroad construction. In the years between the end of the Civil War and the demise of Cooke's firm, railroads laid 35,000 miles of new track in the United States and became the nation's largest employers. Eastern financial markets and railroads grew up together."
This 1873 cartoon by Jay Cooke portrays
the panic of 1873 as a health officer sweeping garbage
out of Wall Street. The "trash" is labeled, "rotten railways"
and "shaky banks", among other things.
Does this sound at all familiar?
Think: What has been going on since 2008 between Americans and Wall Street?
What Else Was Going on During the Period?
The years leading up to, during, and following the Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877) are most often remembered for the tension between North and South, the question of slavery, President Lincoln, and social and political changes in the postwar South. Other things were happening and we need to understand and remember that history is a story that is simultaneous: as one event occurs, so, too, do hundreds of other events....--National Archives
Treasury Warrant in the Amount of $7.2 Million for the Purchase of Alaska!
"In 1866 the Russian government offered to sell the territory of Alaska to the United States. Secretary of State William H. Seward, enthusiastic about the prospect of American expansion, negotiated the deal for the Americans. Eduard de Stoekl, Russian Minister to the United States, negotiated for the Russians. On March 30, 1867, the two parties agrees that the United States would pay Russia $7.2 million for the territory of Alaska. For less than 2 cents an acre, the United States acquired nearly 600,000 square miles.
Opponents of the Alaska Purchase persisted in calling it “Seward’s Folly” or “Seward’s Icebox” until 1896, when the great Klondike Gold Rush convinced even the harshest critics that Alaska was a valuable addition to the United States.
With this check, the United States completed the purchase of almost 600,000 square miles of land that would become our 49th state. This Treasury Warrant, issued on August 1, 1868 at the Sub-Treasury Building at 26 Wall Street, New York, New York, transferred $7,200,000.00 to the Russian Minister to the United States, Edouard de Stoeckl. The purchase price of the 49th state — two cents an acre!"
Fort Laramie Treaty, 1868
In 1868, the Federal Government established the Indian Peace Commission. The Commission and
the Sioux negotiated the Fort Laramie Treaty
which reaffirmed the Sioux claim to the land
along the Bozeman Trail.
The Yellowstone Park Act, 1872
This public law created Yellowstone National Park in 1872. America’s first national park, Yellowstone is home
to the geyser Old Faithful and the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone. The Act described the boundaries of the park; withdrew land within its boundaries from settlement,
occupancy, or sale; and set the park aside for
“the benefit and enjoyment of the people.”
Act of July 1, 1862
Pacific Railroad Act,
12 STAT 489, which established the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the
Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean.